Hyperpigmentation appears as freckles, spots, caused by age, sun, hormones, internal factors (diseases), medications, acne scars, and even inflammation, which can all lead to dark spots. This skin irregularity, while not dangerous, can be aesthetically unpleasant. The best way to prevent them is by using sunscreen as the first line of defense, in addition to the use of mild, safe acids. Creams effective in reducing these blemishes will contain acid (such as kojic, phytic, mandelic, ferulic, glycolic, malic, lactic, citric, salicylic, or azelaic) and vitamin C, among others, these actives will not irritate the skin and will help to even out and lighten the skin tone.
Alpha hydroxy acids, better known as AHAs, are compounds found in nature and mainly obtained from fruits. Glycolic acid is one of the most common AHAs in cosmetics, since its low molecular weight gives it a greater penetration and absorption capacity; this helps to soften the cellular cement, weakening the intercellular junctions of the stratum corneum (horny layer) allowing it to:
• Increase the permeability of the skin, helping product penetration.
• Facilitate skin exfoliation, accelerating the tissue regeneration process, promoting the emergence of new cells.
• Increase the biosynthesis of skin collagen and elastin, while helping to maintain the skin’s natural hydration.
By Eva Gonzales Olmedo